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ITS » Master Theses » Teknologi Proses - S2
Posted by aprill@is.its.ac.id at 13/11/2015 14:00:00  •  1082 Views


HIDROCRACKING TAR HASIL CO-PIROLISIS BATUBARA LOW RANK DAN TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN KATALIS COMOAL2O3

HYDROCRACKING OF TAR OBTAINED FROM CO-PYROLYSIS LOW RANK COAL AND OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH WITH CATALYST Co-MoAl2O3

Author :
MARDIAH ( 2312 201 005 )




ABSTRAK

Kebutuhan akan energy fossil terus meningkat tetapi tidak diimbangi dengan ketersediaan cadangan minyak bumi yang menurun terhadap waktu. Indonesia adalah negara yang kaya akan sumber daya alam lain seperti batubara yang jumlahnya cukup melimpah namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal karena kualitasnya yang rendah. Sehingga perlu upaya untuk mengkonversi batubara menjadi bahan bakar cair melalui teknologi pencairan. Pada umumnya pirolisis digunakan untuk memproduksi bahan bakar liquid maupun bahan kimia lainnya namun yield produk masih rendah karena perbandingan hidrogen dan karbon yang rendah. Oleh karena itu untuk meningkatkan yield diperlukan suplay hidrogen dari sumber yang lain dalam hal ini digunakan tandan kosong kelapa sawit yang merupakan limbah pertanian yang belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua tahap tahap pertama adalah pembuatan Tar liquid dari co-pirolisis antara batubara low rank dan tandan kosong kelapa sawit TKKS. Tahap kedua adalah hidrocracking tar hasil co-pirolisis. Pada tahap pertama batubara dan TKKS dikeringkan terlebih dahulu untuk menghilangkan kandungan air dan direduksi ukuran partikel nya 149 956m- 238 mm kemudian sebanyak 200 gram bahan baku dimasukan ke dalam reaktor dengan komposisi antara batubara dan TKKS yakni 1000 7525 5050 2575 dan 0100 dan suhu reaksi 300400500600dan7000C. Pirolisis dilakukan selama 1 jam dengan menggunakan gas N2. Produk liquid hasil pirolisis ini masih mengandung senyawa dengan berat molekul yang tinggi dan zat pengotor. Oleh karena itu kualitas produk liquid hasil pirolisis perlu ditingkatkan. Salah satu metode tersebut adalah melalui metode hidrocracking. Pada tahap kedua ini sebanyak 80 ml Tar dan katalis Co-MoAl2O3 diumpankan ke dalam reaktor bertekanan sebagai bahan baku. Kondisi reaksi pada proses hidrocracking adalah batch dengan tekanan 25 bar waktu reaksi 1jam dan suhu 150225 dan 250 0C. Kemudian produk minyak yang dihasilkan dianalisa dengan GC-MS dan dihitung yieldnya. Dengan dilakukannya co-pyrolysis BatubaraTKKS terdapat efek sinergis dengan meningkatnya perolehan produk liquid pada kondisi operasi antara lain pada suhu 300oC rasio 7525 suhu 400 oC rasio 5050 suhu 400 oC rasio 2575 suhu 600 oC7525 dan suhu 700 oC rasio 7525. Tar yang diperoleh mengandung senyawa alkana alkena asam dan esterphenol benzene dan turunannya alkoholketon aldehid serta policyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Sedangkan dari hasil hidrocracking diperoleh yield liquid secara berturut-turut 7914 7529 dan 636. Dan yield minyak berturut-turut 046 05 dan 1231. Dari hasil karakterisasi GCMS minyak hasil hidrocracking menunjukan reaksi-reaksi seperti cracking ring opening isomerisasi hidrogenasi dekarboksilasi alkoholisasi nitrogenasi esterifikasi.polimerisasi dan rekonstruksi. Secara keseluruhan minyak hasil hidrocracking tar mengarah kepada fraksi diesel.


ABSTRACT

The increasing of fossil fuel consumption is not balance with availability of oil reserves which are decreasing with time. Indonesia is a rich country in natural resources such as coal which is quite abundant but has not been used optimally because the quality is low. So it needs an effort to convert coal into liquid fuels through liquefaction technology. In general pyrolysis used to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals but the product yield is low due to the low comparison of hydrogen and carbon. Therefore it is necessary to increase the yield liquid by supplying hydrogen from other sources such as oil palm empty fruit bunches EFB which are agricultural waste that has not been used optimally. This study consisted of two stages the first stage produced tar by copyrolysis between low-rank coal and EFB.And the second stage was hydrocracking of co-pyrolysis tar results. In the first stage coal and TKKS dried to remove water content and reduced its particle size of 2.38 mm-149 956m then 200 grams of raw material feed into the reactor with a composition between coal and EFB is 1000 7525 5050 2575 and 0100 and the reaction temperature 300400500600 and 7000C. Pyrolysis carried out for 1 hour by using N2 gas. Then 80 ml of Tar and 5 Co-MoAl2O3 catalyst feed to the pressurized reactor as raw materials in the second stage. The liquid product of pyrolysis still contained heavy molecular weight compound and impurities. So it is necessary to up-grade the quality of product with hydrocracking method in the second stage. The reaction conditions in the hydrocracking process was batch with a pressure of 25 bar reaction time 1 hour and temperature 150 225 and 250 0C. Then diesel products analyzed by GC-MS. There was a synergistic effect between Coal and EFB by co-pyrolysing them with operating conditions at a temperature of 300oC the ratio of 7525 temperature of 400 C the ratio of 5050 temperature of 400 C the ratio of 2575 temperature of 600 oC 7525 and a temperature of 700 C the ratio of 7525. Tar-contains compounds derived alkanes alkenes acids and esters phenols benzene and its derivatives alcohols ketones aldehydes and policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Meanwhile the result of liquid yield from hydrocracking process respectively 79.14 75.29 and 63.6. And oil yield respectively 0.46 0.5 and 12.31. GCMS characterization of oil from hydrocracking reactions occur such as cracking ring opening isomerization hydrogenation decarboxylation alcoholization nitrogenation esterification polymerization and reconstruction. Overall oil from hydrocracking leads to the diesel fraction.



KeywordsBatubara; tandan kosong kelapa sawit; co-pirolisis; hidrocracking
 
Subject:  Batubara - pirolisis
Contributor
  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. M. Rachimoellah, Dipl. Est
  2. Siti Zullaikah, ST. MT. Ph.D
Date Create: 13/11/2015
Type: Text
Format: pdf
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-Master-23103150001531
Collection ID: 23103150001531
Call Number: RTK 660.299 Mar h


Source
Master Theses of Chemical Engineering, RTK 660.299 Mar h, 2015

Coverage
ITS Community

Rights
Copyright @2015 by ITS Library. This publication is protected by copyright and per obtained from the ITS Library prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a re transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, reco For information regarding permission(s), write to ITS Library




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  1.  ITS-Master-39538-2312201005-abstract_id.pdf - 373 KB
  2.  ITS-Master-39538-2312201005-abstract_en.pdf - 381 KB
  3.  ITS-Master-39538-2312201005-conclusion.pdf - 431 KB




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