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ITS » Master Theses » Teknologi Proses - S2
Posted by dewi007 at 04/09/2009 15:55:23  •  8429 Views


PEMANFAATAN MINYAK GORENG BEKAS SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR BIOKEROSIN

UTILIZATION OF USED FRYING OIL AS BIOKEROSENE FUEL

Author :
Syaripuddin, Muhammad Syahrir ( 2306201007 )




ABSTRAK

Minyak tanah sampai saat ini masih merupakan sumber energi utama yang dipakai sebagai bahan bakar rumah tangga di Indonesia terutama digunakan sebagai energi rumah tangga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat bahan bakar alternatif biokerosin dari minyak goreng bekas. Metode yang digunakan terdiri dari dua tahap proses yaitu esterifikasi dan transesterifikasi. Pada proses esterifikasi menggunakan katalis asam sedangkan transesterifikasi menggunakan katalis basa. Peralatan yang digunakan terdiri dari labu leher tiga water bath hot plate magnetik stirrer thermometer kondesor balik statif corong pemisah 500 ml dan Erlenmeyer 500 ml serta beberapa alat penunjang lainnya. Rasio metanolminyak yang merupakan variabel penelitian terdiri dari 41 51 61 81 111 141 dan 171 dengan waktu reaksi 120 menit pada temperature 60 oC. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari sawit yang mendekati karakteristik kerosin diperoleh pada rasio methanolminyak 11 1 dengan nilai spesifik gravity 0864 grcm3 flash point 167 0F heating value 8990 calgr dan viscositas 2719 cst sedangkan metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari kelapa diperoleh pada rasio 4 1 dengan nilai spesifik gravity 0874 grcm3 flash point 140 0F heating value 9024 calgr dan viscositas 2711 cst. Pada uji bakar pada kompor sumbu menunjukkan bahwa laju konsumsi bahan bakar metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari sawit 096 mlmenit metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari kelapa 101 mlmenit dan minyak tanah 105 mlmenit dengan waktu pembakaran 120 menit artinya metil ester dari minyak goreng bekas lebih irit dibandingkan dengan minyak tanah untuk kompor sumbu sedangkan uji bakar pada kompor bertekanan menunjukkan metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari sawit 110 mlmenit metil ester minyak goreng bekas dari kelapa 104 mlmenit dan minyak tanah 092 mlmenit dengan waktu uji pembakaran 120 menit yang berarti bahwa minyak tanah lebih irit dibandingkan dengan metil ester dari minyak goreng bekas. Hasil uji pada kompor sumbu dan bertekanan menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan biokerosin ini tidak memerlukan modifikasi kompor minyak tanah yang selama ini sudah beredar di masyarakat.


ABSTRACT

Nowadays kerosene is still as the main energy source for household fuel in Indonesia especially as household energy. This research aim to create alternative fuel biokerosene from used frying oil. The methods used were 2 process step esterification and trans-esterification. Acid catalyst used at esterification process while base catalyst used at trans-esterification process. The equipment have been used were three throat flask water bath hot plate magnetic stirrer thermometer reverse condenser statif separatory funnel 500 mL Erlenmeyer 500 mL and other devices. The methanoloil ratios as research variable were 41 51 61 81 111 141 and 171 with reaction time was 120 minute and the temperature was 60 C. The research result showed the methyl ester of used frying palm oil which close to kerosene characteristic was at 111 methanoloil ratio with specific gravity was 0864 gcm3 flash point was 167 F heating value was 8990 calg and viscosity was 2719 cSt while the methyl ester of used frying coconut oil obtained at 41 ratio with specific gravity was 0874 gcm3 flash point was 140 F heating value was 9024 calg and viscosity was 2711 cSt. Burning test at co-axial stove showed methyl ester fuel of used frying palm oil consumption rate was 096 mLmin methyl ester fuel of used frying coconut oil was 101 mLmin and kerosene was 105 mLmin at 120 min burning time which means methyl ester from used frying oil was more economizes compared to kerosene for co-axial stove. While burning test for pressure stove showed methyl ester of used frying palm oil consumption rate was 110 mLmin methyl ester fuel of used frying coconut oil was 104 mLmin and kerosene was 092 mLmin at 120 min burning time which means kerosene was more economizes compared to methyl ester from used frying oil. The test result at co-axial and pressure stoves showed the utilization of this biokerosene doesnt require modification at kerosene stove which has available at society.



KeywordsBiokerosin ; esterifikasi ; minyak goreng bekas ; minyak tanah ; transesterifikasi.
 
Subject:  Kerosin
Contributor
  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. MAHFUD, DEA
Date Create: 04/09/2009
Type: Text
Format: pdf.
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-Master-3100009035426
Collection ID: 3100009035426
Call Number: RTK 665.538 3 Sya p


Source
Master Theses of Chemical Engineering, RTK 665.538 3 Sya p, 2009

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