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ITS » PhD Theses » Program Doktoral Teknik Sipil
Posted by eny at 11/01/2010 17:56:22  •  7656 Views


MODEL HIDRODINAMIKA PENYEBARAN POLUTAN DI SUNGAI

HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL ON POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN RIVER

Author :
KARNANINGROEM, NIEKE 




ABSTRAK

Upaya pengawasan dan pemantauan kualitas air sungai yang dilakukan dengan cara mengukur debit dan kecepatan airnya tidak dilakukan bersamaan waktunya dengan pengambilan sampel air sungai pada titik tersebut Disisi lain pemodelan kualitas air di Indonesia umumnya masih berdasarkan pada kondisi steady satu dimensi dan masih bersifat parsial belum memasukkan unsur hidrodinamika seperti kecepatan dan debit sedangkan pemodelan di bidang matematika berkembang menjadi 2 dimensi 2-D dan bahkan dalam 3 dimensi 3-D. Karena itu diperlukan model yang dapat menjembatani masalah tersebut yang menggunakan matematik sebagai dasar pendekatannya. Salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan metode numerik beda hingga eksplisit leap frog yang divisualisasikan dengan program komputer matlab. Dalam hal ini telah dikembangkan model HP2S Hidrodinamika Penyebaran Polutan Di Sungai yang didasarkan pada hukum kekekalan energi dan kekekalan massa serta dapat mengindentifikasikan arah penyebaran dispersi polutan 2 D horizontal di sungai dengan variasi kecepatan tidak parsial. Karena model ini menyangkut karakteristik air sungai dan air limbah serta unsur hidrodinamika aliran debit dan kecepatan aliran maka diperlukan penelitian yang mendasarinya yaitu penelitian mengenai identifikasi arah atau pola penyebaran polutan di sungai studi kasus Kali Surabaya pengaruh unsur hidrodinamika aliran air sungai terhadap penyebaran polutan di sungai dan korelasi antara kecepatan aliran air sungai studi kasus Kali Surabaya dengan konsentrasi parameter polutan. Penelitian skala laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Teknik Lingkungan Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan ITS dan di Laboratorium Hidro Teknik di Jurusan Teknik Sipil ITS. Sedangkan penelitian lapangan dilakukan di Kali Surabaya pada segmen antara Cangkir sampai ke Sepanjang KS103S - KS1040. Parameter yang ditetapkan adalah DO COD parameter polutan non-konservatif dan CI parameter polutan konservatif. Identifikasi penyebaran polutan dalam pilot plan menggunakan indikator zat warna Methylen Blue sedangkan model Flume menggunakan zat warna violet dari oksidator KMn04. Program source code model dibuat untuk sungai lurus dan belok pada kondisi larniner dan turbulen polutan konservatif dan non konservatif serta dengan limpasan di pinggir serta di tengah sungai. Pengujian dilakukan dengan persyaratan batas Bilangan Courant 1 untuk stabil fungsi F - f pembaganan leap frog mendekati nol untuk konsisten dan selisih Fjn dengan fjn mendekati nilai nol untuk konvergen. Sedangkan aliran dibatasi dengan nilai Nre 2400 untuk larniner dan Nre 2400 untuk turbulen serta polutan konservatif diberi notasi z 1 dan non konservatif dengan z 2. Faktor alam seperti diantaranya pengaruh angin evaporasi arus eddy pengaruh pasang surut air laut dan anak sungai diabaikan. Pengujian data primer dan sekunder debit kecepatan dan konsentrasi digunakan metode uji chi square uji korelasi dengan transformasi data logaritma dengan persyaratan nilai R2 1 atau r 09 5 buah sampel dan 0497 12 buah sampel pada tabel nilai kritis koefisien korelasi Range Spearman dengan a 005 dan P 000. Uji nilai koefisien oksigenasi kg nilai koefisien dispersi polutan longitudinal Ex dan lateral Ey dilakukan dengan uji korelasi regresi linier sedangkan kd dilakukan dengan cara trial dan error karena kd merupakan fungsi empiris. Hasil penelitian di laboratorium dan di lapangan desa Cangkir sampai ke desa Sepanjang menunjukkan hubungan non - linier antara konsentrasi COO dan kecepatan aliran air arah sumbu x dan y pada berbagai variasi kondisi aliran di sungai. Sedangkan nilai R2 hasil uji korelasi terhadap DO mgL dan COD mgL di titik - titik A B C D dan E pada lokasi pengambilan sampel air Cangkir Bambe Karang Pilang dan Sepanjang dengan variasi kecepatan aliran air sungai cmdetik adalah 1 atau berarti konsentrasi DO dan COD dipengaruhi kecepatan aliran air sungai. Untuk parameter CI nilai R2 1 atau berarti konsentrasi CI tidak dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan aliran air. Running model dilakukan pada segmen desa Cangkir sampai Sepanjang sedangkan pengujian dan aplikasi model terhadap konsentrasi COD dilakukan di Cangkir dengan limpasan dari industri kertas PT. Suparma dan industri tekstil PT. Hueyehyi serta kecepatan aliran air sungai 019 mdetik pada jarak 17.5 m dari tepi sungai dan 8.6 m arah memanjang sungai. Hasil aplikasi model untuk lokasi limpasan air limbah di pinggir dan di tengah - tengah sungai membuktikan bahwa penyebaran polutan mengikuti arus sungai dominan ke arah memanjang sungai. Dan untuk limpasan tepi sungai penyebaran polutan terjauh mencapai jarak 135 m atau lebih kecil dari Vz kali lebar sungai. Oleh karena itu dalam monitoring kualitas air di sungai perlu memperhatikan letak limpasan air limbah titik discharge dan kecepatan aliran di setiap titik aliran arus sungai. Dari uraian diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa model HP2S yaitu model 2D arah horizontal yang dibuat berdasarkan pada fungsi non linier dengan menggunakan persamaan matematika diferensial parsial dan diselesaikan secara numerik dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan dan debit aliran air sungai limpasan air limbah serta konsentrasi limpasan air limbah saat itu. Model ini dapat memberikan gambar arah penyebaran polutan dan prediksi jarak sebaran dari limpasan air limbah ke sungai saat itu serta dapat digunakan sebagai dasar penetapan lokasi titik sampling pada saat monitoring kualitas air dilakukan dan juga dapat diterapkan untuk variasi kondisi aliran sungai yang lurus maupun berbelok jenis polutan yang konservatif atau non konservatif serta variasi lokasi limpasan air limbah ke sungai.


ABSTRACT

The control and monitoring of river water quality that are executed by the measurement of flow and velocity are not simultaneously conducted with the sampling at the same point On the other hand water quality modeling in Indonesia still pursuant generally to steady state condition one dimension and partial excludes hydrodynamic factors such as flow and velocity. Further mathematic modeling has been developed into 2 dimensions 2-D and even into 3 dimensions 3-D. Therefore it is necessary to develop a model that could correlate that problem using mathematics as a basic approach. An alternative used for this purpose is with leap frog explicit finite difference numerical method visualized with the computer program Matlab. The developed model of HP2S was based on conservation laws of mass and energy and it enables to identify the 2-D horizontal direction of pollutant dispersion in the river within the variation of velocity not partial. Because the model pertains to the characteristic of the river water and wastewater and also hydrodynamics aspect flow and velocity of stream hence it should be preceded by research on identification of the direction or pattern of pollutant dispersion in river case study Kali Surabaya influence of hydrodynamic aspect of river flow to the dispersion pollutant in river and the correlation between river water velocity with the concentration of pollutants case study Kali Surabaya. The research on a lab-scale was done in the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering Department of ITS and in the Laboratory of Hidro Teknik Civil Engineering Department ITS. While field work was carried out in Kali Surabaya starting from the river segment of Cangkir to Sepanjang KS1035 - KS1040. The determined parameters were DO COD as non-conservative pollutant and CI as conservative pollutant. The pollutant dispersion in the pilot plan was indicated by using Methylen Blue while the Flume model used violet color of KM11O4. The program source code of model was designed for straight and meandering river during the condition of laminar and turbulent flows for conservative and non-conservative pollutants and for the discharge from the river side and also from the center side of river. The tests entailed the limitation conditions Courant number 1 for stabilization leap frog scheme F - f function of approximately 0 for consistency and the Fjn - fjn approximately 0 for the convergent. While for the river flow limitation of Nre 2400 for the laminar and Nre 2400 for the turbulent The conservative pollutant was addressed by notation numbers z 1 and z 2 for non-conservative pollutant External factors such as wind influence evaporation Eddy current tidal effect river branch were neglected. Tests of primary and secondary data flow velocity and concentration were executed by the chi square method the correlation test by transformation of logarithm data test with the condition of R2 1 or r 09 5 samples and 0497 12 samples using the table of critical value of correlation coefficient of Range Spearman by a 005 and P 000. Tests on the oxygenation coefficient ka the coefficient number of longitudinal Ex and lateral Ey dispersion of pollutants were done by the linier regression test while kd was done by trial and error because kd is an empirical function. Results of the research in the laboratory and in the field from Cangkir to Sepanjang showed the non-linier relation between concentration of COD and water velocity in x and y directions for the various river flow conditions. While results of R2 value for the correlation test to DO mgL and COD mgL in points A B C D and E at the location of sampling points Cangkir Bambe Karang Pilang and Sepanjang with the variation of river water velocity cmdetikl or it represents that the concentration of DO and COD was influenced by the velocity of river water while R2 value 1 for CI hence the concentration of CI was not influenced by the velocity of river water. Running of the model was done at the segment of Cangkir to Sepanjang while the examination and application of the model to the concentration of COD was done in Cangkir using the effluent discharge of paper factory of PT. Suparma and the textile industry of PT. Hueyehyi with the velocity of river water of 0.19 msec at 17.5 m distance from the riverbank and 8.6 m river length. Results of the model application for the discharge location of wastewater along riverbank and in the center of river concluded that the dispersion of pollutant depends on the dominant current at river length direction. And for the discharge along the riverbank the farthest dispersion of pollutant reached 13.5 m or less than half width of the river. Therefore in monitoring the river water quality it is needed to consider the location point of wastewater discharge point source and river flowrate in every point of river. From the description above it can be concluded that the 2-D horizontal model of HP2S based on the non linear function using the equation of partial differential mathematics and completed by numeric methods was influenced by the velocity and flowrate of the river by concentration and discharge of wastewater into the river at that time. The model enables to predict the direction and the distance of pollutant dispersion into the river at that time and could also be referred to determine the location of sampling point during the monitoring of water quality at that time and be applied for the variation of flow conditions in a straight or in a meandering river for conservative and non-conservative pollutants and also variation of wastewater discharge location into the river.



KeywordsUnsur hidrodinamika ; Penyebaran polutan ; Model beda hingga ; Eksplisit leap frog
 
Subject:  Limbah, pembuangan ; Hidrodinamika
Contributor
  1. Prof.Dr.Ir H. Nadjadji Anwar, MSc.
    Prof.Dr.Ir. H. Wahyono Hadi, MSc.
    Dr.Ir. Edijatno, CES, DEA
    Dr. Basuki Widodo
Date Create: 11/01/2010
Type: Text
Format: pdf
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-PhD-3100006025511
Collection ID: 3100006025511
Call Number: RDS 628.301 511 8 Kar m


Source
PhD Theses, Civil Engineering, RDS 628.301 511 8 Kar m, 2006

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