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ITS » PhD Theses » Program Doktoral Arsitektur
Posted by tondoindra@gmail.com at 07/03/2012 10:45:05  •  1853 Views


KONSEKUENSI FILSAFATI MANUNGGALING KAWULA GUSTI PADA ARSITEKTUR JAWA

PHILOSOPHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF MANUNGGALING KAWULA GUSTI IN JAWA ARCHITECTURE

Author :
ADIYANTO, JOHANNES  ( 3208301002 )




ABSTRAK

Perkembangan arsitektur di Indonesia masa kini lebih mengarah padaeksperimen gubahan massa yang mengutamakan eksplorasi bentuk. Hal tersebut merupakan dampak dari arah pendidikan arsitektur yang mengacu pada cara berpikir arsitektur manca. Pengetahuan Indonesia terutama pada pengetahuan arsitektur Jawa sangat dipengaruhi oleh kolonialisasi pengetahuan sejak awal abad 19. Akibatnya pengetahuan arsitektur manca sangat mempengaruhi persepsi masyarakat Jawa terhadap arsitekturnya sendiri. Latar belakang itulah yang mendorong penelitian ini melakukan kajian arsitektur Jawa dengan menggunakan sudut pandang filsafat. Tujuannya memahami hal yang paling hakiki dari arsitektur Jawa. Masalah penelitian yaitu pengungkapan cara pandangpikir masyarakat Jawa terhadap arsitekturnya dari sudut pandang filsafati Telaah filsafat Jawa sering kali dilakukan dari sudut pandang teologi-budaya sehingga perlu merekonstruksi kedalam pemahaman filsafat arsitektur. Telaah kritis juga dilakukan terhadap pemahaman Jawa yang umumnya digunakan pemahaman geo-politik yang menyatakan bahwa pusat kebudayaan Jawa berada di Surakarta dan Yogyakarta. Dengan tinjauan kritis Jawa tidak lagi dipandang sempit dari kesukuan atau jawa sentris tapi kepada kualitas kepribadian atau semangat ke-jawa-an. Definisi arsitektur Jawa menggunakan pemahaman total architecture yang mencakup tidak hanya hal fisik tetapi juga hal metafisik yang bersifat spiritual.Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode investigasi filsafati atau metode klarifikasi dari Wittegenstein yang mampu melakukan investigasi penggunaan kata dalam bahasa dan penggunaan kata dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Sedangkan filsafat arsitektur yang akan disempurnakan adalah filsafat arsitektur dari Heidegger. Filsafat arsitektur Heidegger berada pada tataran ontologik dan bukan hasil intrepretasi teoriawan arsitektur. Rekonstruksi filsafat Jawa menghasilkan pemahaman bahwa Zoetmulder memahami filsafat Manunggaling Kawula Gusti sebagai suatu tempat atau keadaan. Hal ini berbeda dengan filsafat Pamoring Kawula Gusti yang dipahami sebagai sebuah proses pemahaman inilah yang digunakan sebagai landas pikir disertasi. Dengan landasan itu maka filsafat arsitektur Jawa terbagi menjadi tiga tahapan yaitu 1 dialog dualistik-kontras 2 dialog dualistik-mediatif dan yang terakhir 3 monolog monistik-spiritual. Konsekuensi dialektika itu arsitektur Jawa memiliki dua sumbu dialektika yaitu sumbu horisontal dan sumbu vertikal. Dengan menggunakan metode dialogis dua arah didapatkan bahwa Being dari Heidegger dapat dikatakan sebagai benih pemikiran spiritual. Filsafat arsitektur Heidegger lebih kepada mengumpulkan dengan tujuan pemeliharaan sedangkan filsafat arsitektur Jawa meng-kawin-kan dengan tujuan keberlanjutanproses kehidupan. Hal tersebut didasarkan pada cara paham Heidegger yang lebih kepada intuisi indrawi sedangkan Jawa lebih kepada intuisi spiritual. Konsekuensi terhadap filsafat arsitektur Jawa adalah arsitektur Jawa tidak hanya dipandang sebagai sebuah benda fisik belaka tapi juga obyek yang mempunyai aspek spiritual. Konsekuensi pemahaman tersebut adalah dalam cara memahami arsitektur. Arsitektur dipahami tidak hanya berhenti pada intuisi-indrawi yang bersifat mengumpulkan dengan bertujuan pada pemeliharaankonservasi tetapi pada intuisi-spiritual yang bertujuan pada keberlanjutan suatu proses kehidupan.


ABSTRACT

Indonesian contemporary architectural development is merely built from the experimental mass composition which gives more priority to form exploration. This method has given an impact to architectural educations direction which mostly refers to the way of thinking of westernforeign architecture. Indonesian knowledge and especially in Jawa architecture has been strongly influenced by colonization since the early of 19th century. As result colonial architecture has been deeply involved with Jawa architecture which places the Javanese perception about their own architecture. Therefore this circumstance has inspired the researcher doing a research study which uses the Javanese philosophical point of view in order to understand the essence of Jawa architecture. The research problem is to find how the Javanese people see or think about their architecture from the philosophical perspective. Javanese philosophical study is often done from theological-culture standpoint which needs to be reconstructed into architectural philosophy. Critical study is used to find the Javaneses definition which commonly used as geo-political perceptive in which state that Javanese culture is only centered in Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The research is also introduced critical standpoint that Jawa is no longer narrowly as Jawa centrist but personality quality or the spirit of Jawa is also important to be seen. Jawa architecture has to be seen and understood as total architecture which contains not only physical element but also metaphysical elements which have spirituality character. This research use philosophical investigation or clarification by Wittengestein which is capable of doing investigate the using of word in the language and the using word in daily life. Meanwhile in the architectural philosophy this research refines the Heidegger thought which is placed in ontology level. This philosophical thinking is original from Heideggers thought not from the interpretation.The reconstruction of Javanese philosophy shows that Manunggaling Kawula Gusti philosophy is being understood by Zoetmulder as a place or situation. This standpoint is difference Pamoring Kawula Gusti philosophy which is understood as a process. This understanding is used as basic thought of this dissertation. Based on this understanding Jawa philosophy is divided into three steps 1 dialogue dualistic-contrast 2 dualistic-mediation dialogue and the last is monolog monistic-spiritual. From the consequence of that dialectics the Jawa architecture has two dialectic axes which are horizontal axis and the vertical axis. By using the two-way dialogue method it is found that Heideggers Being is the forerunner of spiritual thought. Heideggers architectural philosophy is built from gathering in order as maintenance while the Jawas architectural philosophy talks about marrying male and female element in order to get sustainability for continuing in life process goal. This understanding was based on difference philosophical approach which Heideggers understanding is from the sensory-intuition and in the other hand Javanese uses spiritual-intuition. This consequence is influence the Jawa architectural philosophy which is the Jawa architecture is not only seen as physical object but also as things which has a spiritual aspect. These understanding consequences build in how we understand the architecture. Architecture is not only stopped being understood by intuition-sensory which is only gathering in order to get maintaining or conservations goal. But also spiritual-intuition has to be involved to get sustainable of life process.



KeywordsFilsafat Arsitektur; Metode Investigasi Filsafati; Spiritualitas
 
Subject:  Arsitektur jawa
Contributor
  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Josef Prijotomo, M.Arch
  2. Dr. Ir. Galih Widjil Pangarsa, DEA
Date Create: 16/12/2011
Type: Text
Format: pdf
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-PhD-3100012045591
Collection ID: 3100012045591
Call Number: RDA 720 Adi k


Source
Phd Theses,Architecture,RDA 720 Adi k, 2012

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Copyright @2011 by ITS Library. This publication is protected by copyright and per obtained from the ITS Library prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a re transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, reco For information regarding permission(s), write to ITS Library




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  1.  ITS-PhD-18005-3208301002-abstract-idpdf.pdf - 191 KB
  2.  ITS-PhD-18005-3208301002-abstract-enpdf.pdf - 192 KB
  3.  ITS-PhD-18005-3208301002-conclusionpdf.pdf - 1847 KB
  4.  ITS-PhD-18005-3208301002-paperpdf.pdf - 2901 KB




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