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ITS » PhD Theses » Program Doktoral Teknik Sipil
Posted by tondoindra@gmail.com at 17/02/2016 14:00:38  •  1810 Views


EXTRACTION OF PURE BITUMEN FROM ASBUTON BY MEANS OF EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PROCESS

Author :
HALIMI, MUHAMMAD ( 3106301201 )




ABSTRAK

Kebutuhan aspal di Indonesia untuk pemeliharaan jalan maupun pembangunan jalan baru terus meningkat. Tetapi kapasitas produksi kilang minyak domestik di Indonesia hanya mampu memproduksi sekitar 33 dari kebutuhan aspalbitumen di dalam negri sehingga sebagian besar kebutuhan aspal harus diimport. Dengan cadangan yang sangat besar Asbuton - nama populer untuk aspalbatuan dari Pulau Buton - diperkirakan dapat memenuhi semua kebutuhan aspal Indonesia sampai minimal 100 tahun. Akan tetapi penggunaan Asbuton di Indonesia masih relatif sangat sedikit terutama karena aplikasi Asbuton untuk perkerasan jalan bermutu tinggi tidak dapat bersaing dengan aspal-minyak biasa dari segi harga. Adanya kandungan mineral yang dominan pada Asbuton terdiri dari kapur silika dll. dianggap merupakan masalah utama sehingga para ahli berpendapat bitumen murni dari Asbuton harus dapat dipisahkan diekstraksi sepenuhnya dari mineralnya agar harganya menjadi murah. Proses ektraksi bitumen Asbuton yang efektif dan efisien untuk menghasilkan bitumen murni yang dapat bersaing dari segi harga dengan asmin masih belum diketahui di Indonesia sehingga penelitian ini merupakan upaya untuk menyelesaikan masalah di atas. Pada penelitian ini ekstraksi bitumen murni dilakukan pada Asbuton yang dijual di pasaran type BGA B20 kadar bitumen 20 dengan kerosin sebagai minyak pelarut yang terpilih setelah banyak upaya percobaan pengujian sebelumnya dengan menggunakan bahan pelarut bensin dan solar. Penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental laboratorium. Pada proses ekstraksi rasio campuran Asbuton dan kerosin merupakan variabel utama untuk penentuan koefisien perpindahan massa sedangkan pada proses filtrasi perlu ditentukan efisiensi pemisahan antara padatanmineral Asbuton dan larutannya. Kemudian dilakukan proses distilasi secara batch untuk memisahkan aspal murni dan kerosin sehingga dari proses daur-ulang ini kerosin sebagai distilat dapat dipakai lagi untuk pengolahan Asbuton selanjutnya. x Dari hasil ekperimen dihasilkan korelasi empiris berupa koefisien perpindahan massa k a L pada ekstraksi Asbuton yang merupakan fungsi dari kenaikan kecepatan putar pengaduk Np penurunan ukuran partikel Dp dan peningkatan rasio campuran Rp dalam larutan. Pemisahan larutan yang mengandung bitumen dan padatanmineral Asbuton menggunakan alat filtrasi sentrifugal menghasilkan efisiensi cukup tinggi kehilangan kerosin yang tertinggal dalam padatan Asbuton hanya berkisar 3 - 4 dan hampir 100 bitumen murni dapat diekstraksi. Pada proses distilasi diperoleh bitumen murni dan distilat berupa kerosin yang minimal 96 dapat dipakai kembali pada proses ekstraksi selanjutnya. Dari proses ini dapat diperkiraan harga bitumen murni Asbuton yang hampir sama atau lebih rendah dari pada harga asmin di pasaran tergantung terutama dari sampai berapa besar kerosin dapat didaur-ulang untuk dapat digunakan lagi dalam proses ekstraksi selanjutnya.


ABSTRACT

The demand of asphalt in Indonesia for road maintenance and construction of new roads has kept increasing. However the production capacity of the domestic oil refinery in Indonesia could meet merely 33 of the national demand so that most of the required asphalt still has to be imported. With fairly large natural reserve deposit Asbuton a popular name of rock asphalt from the Buton Island of Indonesi - is estimated to be able to fulfill all the need of aspahlt in Indonesia for at least 100 years. However the use of Asbuton in Indonesia was still very minimal because the application of Asbuton for high-quality road pavement could not compete with that of petroleum asphalt in term of price. The existance of dominant Asbuton minerals i.e. mainly lime stone silica and etc. is considered as the main problem so that many experts believe that extraction of bitumen from the minerals is the main solution to obtain cheaper cost. The effective and efficient process of bitumen extraction to obtain production cost bitumen comparable with that of petroleum bitumen is however not yet known in Indonesia so that this research was performed as an effort to address to above problem. In this research extraction of pure bitumen was performed for the common Asbuton available in the market the type of BGA B20 bitumen content of 20 with kerosene as the fluxing agent.The kerosene was selected after many trials conducted previously using gasoline and diesel oil. This reseach was a laboratory experimental one. In the extraction process the ratio betwee Asbton and kerosene was varied to obtain the coefficient of mass transfer inside the solution while in the filtration process the efficiency of seperation process between the solid part and the liquid part of the solution was ditermined. Afterwards the process of distillation was performed to separate kerosene from bitumen-kerosene solution so that the kerosne could be recycled as much as posiible to be used in further process From this experiment an empirical correlation is obtained that the mass transfer coefficient k a L in the extracted Asbuton is a fuction of the increse in xii rotational speed of stirrer Np the reduction Asbuton particle size Db and the increase of ratio of mixture in solution Rp. Separation between liquid solution and the solid mineral part was performend using centrifugal filter system in which the process has resulted fairly high efficiency so that the total kerosene lost was merely between 3 to 4 while almost 100 of pure bitumen was extracted. During the process of distillation pure bitumen was extracted and at lest 96 of the kerosene was recaptured to be used for further processes. From this proces the cost of bitumen production can be estimated and it was found to be comparable or slightly lower than the cost of petroleum asphalt depending mainly on the amount of bitumen could be recaptured from the process to be reused on the the next processes.



Keywordsekstraksi aspal, aspal-batuan, Asbuton, asphalt technology, harga bitumen olahan.
 
Subject:  Aspal
Contributor
  1. Prof. Ir. Indrasurya B. Mochtar, Msc. PhD.
  2. Prof. Dr. Ir. Ali Altway Msc.
Date Create: 17/02/2016
Type: Text
Format: PDF
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-PhD-31004150000142
Collection ID: 31004150000142
Call Number: RDS 691.96 Hal p


Source
Phd Theses Of Civil Engineering RDS 691.96 Hal p, 2016

Coverage
ITS Community

Rights
Copyright @2016 by ITS Library. This publication is protected by copyright and per obtained from the ITS Library prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a re transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, reco For information regarding permission(s), write to ITS Library




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  1.  ITS-PhD-40175-3106301201-abstract_id.pdf - 171 KB
  2.  ITS-PhD-40175-3106301201-abstract_en.pdf - 188 KB
  3.  ITS-PhD-40175-3106301201-Conclusion.pdf - 536 KB




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