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ITS » Paper and Presentation » Program Doktoral Teknik Kimia
Posted by tondoindra@gmail.com at 25/09/2014 22:42:29  •  668 Views


STUDI KINETIKA REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK NABATI DENGAN KATALIS PADAT BERPENYANGGA 61543-ALU

KINETICS STUDY OF VEGETABLE OILS TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION WITH g-ALUMINA SUPPORTED SOLID CATALYST

Author :
ASRI, NYOMAN PUSPA ( 2309301006 )




ABSTRAK

Saat ini kebutuhan energi sangat bergantung kepada minyak bumi crude fossil oil. Namun cadangan minyak bumi yang berasal dari fosil semakin menipis karena sifatnya yang tidak dapat diperbaharui. Disamping itu penggunaan minyak fosil secara terus menerus telah menurunkan kualitas lingkungan. Oleh karena itu perlu dicari alternatif bahan bakar yang ramah lingkungan dan berasal dari sumber terbarukan. Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang strategis untuk dikembangkan terutama dalam upaya mengatasi defisit solar. Biodiesel selama ini diproduksi dengan metode konvensional menggunakan katalis homogen basa atau asam tetapi proses ini mempunyai banyak kelemahan yang mengakibatkan biaya produksi menjadi lebih mahal dibanding minyak diesel. Permasalahan tersebut dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan katalis heterogen. Penelitian ini menggunakan katalis basa padat berpenyangga 947-alumina dengan promotor tunggal CaO CaO947-Al2O3 dan promotor ganda CaO dan KI CaOKI947-Al2O3. Digunakan katalis basa karena membutuhkan temperatur reaksi relatif lebih rendah dibanding katalis asam. Tujuan umum penelitian untuk mempelajari unjuk kerja katalis CaO947-Al2O3 dan CaOKI947-Al2O3 pada reaksi transesterifikasi minyak sawit menjadi biodiesel. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 5 tahapan yaitu tahap pertama preparasi katalis tahap ke dua karakterisasi katalis tahap ke tiga uji aktivitas katalis tahap ke empat proses transesterifiasi minyak sawit menjadi biodiesel dalam reaktor fixed bed unggun tetap kontinyu dan tahap ke lima mencari model kinetika reaksi transesterifikasi minyak sawit. Preparasi katalis dilakukan dengan metode presipitasi dan impregnasi diikuti dengan pengeringan pada suhu 100-110o C dalam oven dan dikalsinasi pada suhu tinggi 600-7200 C. Katalis dikarakterisasi dengan metode X-ray Diffraction XRD Brunauer Emmett Teller BET dan Scanning Electron Microscopis SEM. Uji aktivitas katalis dilakukan dalam reaktor batch metanol refluk dan metanol sub dan superkritis. Proses transesterifikasi minyak sawit menjadi biodisel dilakukan dalam reaktor fixed bed dengan memvariasikan suhu reaksi dan laju umpan campuran metanol-minyak sawit. Produk biodiesel yang terbentuk dianalisa dengan metode Gas Chromatography GC.


ABSTRACT

Nowadays the need of energy depends heavily on petroleum crude fossil oil. However oil fossil reserves are dwindling because of its non-renewable character. Moreover the continuous usage of fossil fuels has lowered the quality of the environment. Therefore it is necessary to find alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly and comes from renewable sources. Biodiesel is one of the strategic alternative energy that can be developed as an effort to overcome the deficit of diesel oil. Biodiesel has been produced by a conventional method using homogeneous base or acid catalyst. However this process has many flaws which resulted in production costs become more expensive than petroleum diesel. This problem can be overcome by using heterogeneous catalysts. This study used 947-alumina supported solid base catalyst with a single promoter CaO CaO947-Al2O3 and dual promoter CaO and KI CaOKI947-Al2O3. Basic catalyst used because it requires relatively lower reaction temperatures than the acid catalyst. The general objective of the research is to study the performance of the CaO947-Al2O3 and CaOKI947-Al2O3 catalyst on transesterification reaction of palm oil into biodiesel. This study consists of five stages the first stage is catalyst preparation second stage catalyst characterization third stage testing catalyst activity fourth stage transesterification process in a continuous fixed bed reactor and the fifth stage determining kinetics models for transesterification reaction of palm oil. Catalyst preparation was done by precipitation and impregnation method followed by drying over night at 100-11061616C in an oven and calcined at high temperatures 71861616C for CaO947-Al2O3 and 65061616C for CaOKI947-Al2O3. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction XRD Brunauer Emmett Teller BET and Scanning Electron Microscopic SEM methods. Catalyst activity test was carried out in batch reactor both on refluxed methanol along with sub and supercritical methanol. The transesterification process of palm oil into biodiesel was performed in a continuous fixed bed reactor by varying the reaction temperature and feed rate of methanol-palm oil blend. Biodiesel products formed were analyzed by gas chromatography GC method.



Keywordsbiodiesel, katalis padat, transesterifikasi, -alumina
 
Subject:  Minyak dan Lemak Nabati
Contributor
  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Roesyadi, DEA
  2. Prof. Dr. Ir. Suprapto, DEA
Date Create: 07/04/2013
Type: Text
Format: PDF
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-paper-23021140005306
Collection ID: 23021140005306
Call Number: RDK 665.3 Asr s,


Source
PhdTheses of Chemical Engineering RDK 665.3 Asr s,2014

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Copyright @2013 by ITS Library. This publication is protected by copyright and per obtained from the ITS Library prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a re transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, reco For information regarding permission(s), write to ITS Library




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