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ITS » Paper and Presentation » Program Doktoral Teknik Sipil
Posted by tondoindra@gmail.com at 25/09/2014 16:35:19  •  2980 Views


IMPROVEMENT OF SERVICES OF MOTORCYCLE-TAXI TO BECOME MORE RELIABLE MODE OF PARATRANSIT IN INDONESIAA CASE STUDY FOR THE CITY OF SURAKARTA AND THE DISTRICT OF WONOGIRI IN CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

Author :
HANDAYANI, DEWI ( 3106301001 )




ABSTRAK

Ojek adalah salah satu moda paratransit yang belum mendapat ijin resmi dari pemerintah. Pelayanan ojek mempunyai banyak keunggulan tetapi juga terdapat kelemahan terutama masalah keselamatan keamanan dan kenyamanan yang menjadi kendala tersendiri dalam mengatur ojek. Keberadaan ojek menjadi penting untuk diatur sebagai bagian dari moda paratransit jika bersifat jangka panjang. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik permintaan dan pelayanan ojek mengevaluasi menganalisa dan mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang berperan terhadap keberadaan ojek untuk mendapatkan jawaban akankah keberadaan ojek bersifat jangka panjang atau jangka pendek. Selain itu penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk merekomendasikan operasional pelayanan yang diperlukan ojek sebagai bagian dari moda paratransit yang lebih andal dalam memenuhi kebutuhan keselamatan keamanan dan kenyamanan pengguna. Metode analisis penelitian adalah deskriptif kuantitatif dengan meneliti variabel sosial ekonomi karakteristik permintaan dan karakteristik pelayanan perjalanan pada responden pengguna ojek dan operator ojek Analisis data primer didasarkan dari data yang dikumpulkan dengan survei kuesioner dan wawancara terhadap responden di Kota Surakarta mewakili angkutan di wilayah perkotaan dan Kabupaten Wonogiri mewakili angkutan di wilayah pedesaan. Hasil penelitian karakteristik permintaan ojek terdiri atas karakteristik profil dominan pengguna ojek dan karakteristik permintaan perjalanan ojek dominan. Hasil penelitian karakteristik pelayanan ojek terdiri atas karakteristik profil dominan operator penyedia layanan ojek karakteristik moda ojek dominan dan karakteristik pelayanan ojek dominan. Persamaan karakteristik profil dominan antara pengguna ojek perkotaan dan pedesaan adalah pada 1 mayoritas pengguna berusia produktif 2 laki-laki lebih banyak menggunakan ojek sebagai angkutan pengumpan dan 3 wanita lebih banyak menggunakan ojek dari asal hingga akhir tujuan perjalanan bukan sebagai angkutan pengumpan. Perbedaan adalah pada 1 ojek perkotaan lebih banyak digunakan usia muda 16-25 tahun sedangkan ojek pedesaan lebih banyak yang berusia dewasa 36 tahun 2 tingkat pendidikan 3 kepemilikan kendaraan 4 posisi dalam keluarga dan 5 tingkat pendapatan. Persamaan karakteristik permintaan perjalanan ojek dominan antara ojek perkotaan dan pedesaan adalah pada mayoritas keperluan perjalanan untuk pulang ke tempat tinggal pada penggunaan ojek sebagai pengumpan dan alasan penggunaan. Perbedaan terdapat pada 1 mayoritas keperluan perjalanan pada penggunaan ojek bukan sebagai pengumpan 2 jam permintaan perjalanan 3 frekuensi penggunaan 4 jarak tempuh perjalanan 5 biaya perjalanan tunggal dibandingkan biaya angkutan umum yang tersedia dan alasan penggunaan. Persamaan karakteristik profil dominan operator penyedia layanan ojek antara operator ojek perkotaan dan pedesaan adalah 1 usia 2 tingkat pendidikan 3 lama kerja sebagai operator 4 pendapatan rata-rata mengojek yang lebih tinggi dari Upah Minimum KotaKabupaten UMK 6 status kepemilikan moda ojek serta 7 keberadaan pekerjaan sampingan selain mengojek. Perbedaan adalah pada keberadaan operator usia muda 16-25 tahun yang tidak terdapat di perkotaan dan ketersediaan pekerjaan sampingan selain mengojek yang lebih banyak di pedesaan. Persamaan karakteristik moda ojek dominan antara perkotaan dan pedesaan adalah pada mayoritas model sepeda motor yang digunakan yaitu model perempuan motor bebek dan berumur 5 tahun. Perbedaan terdapat pada penggunaan kapasitas mesin kendaraan yang lebih besar pada ojek pedesaan daripada ojek perkotaan. Persamaan karakteristik pelayanan ojek dominan antara ojek perkotaan dan pedesaan adalah 1 pelayanan ojek bersifat sepanjang waktu 2 ojek akan muncul pada lokasi dengan keterbatasan sarana transportasi umum 3 ojek juga digunakan untuk pelayanan dengan jarak tempuh 10 km 4 pelayanan ojek dengan mudah didapatkan dengan datang ke pos ojek langganan dan melalui alat komunikasi hand phone membuktikan ojek telah mendapat kepercayaan sebagai salah satu alat transportasi yang dibutuhkan mayarakat serta 5 operator ojek di lokasi pergantian moda lebih tertib lalu lintas daripada yang tidak berlokasi di sekitar pergantian moda. Perbedaan terdapat pada potensi kecelakaan karena lebih banyak dipengaruhi kondisi medan pelayanan. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan keberadaan ojek akan bersifat jangka panjang disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berperan terhadap keberadaan ojek yaitu 1 perencanaan rute angkutan umum reguler yang kurang memperhitungkan kemampuan jarak berjalan kaki untuk mencapai tempat pelayanan 2 faktor keterbatasan fasilitas prasarana dan sarana transportasi dalam kondisi baik dan mencapai seluruh wilayah yang tidak mampu disediakan oleh pemerintah 3 faktor usaha ojek yang layak secara finansial dan tidak memerlukan subsidi pemerintah 4 faktor kondisi ekonomi masyarakat yang lebih memerlukan moda transportasi yang murah dan 5 faktor keterbatasan penyediaan kesempatan kerja terutama bagi masyarakat dengan tingkat pendidikan rendah dan usia lanjut. Keberadaan ojek berpotensi dalam mengatasi kesenjangan transportasi dalam sistem penghubung yaitu sebagai salah satu moda angkutan pengumpan feeder untuk mengatasi kebutuhan jarak tempuh 5 km di wilayah perkotaan dengan topografi datar dan 10 km di wilayah pedesaan dengan topografi berbukit. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan operasional pelayanan dari aspek regulasi berupa regulasi pemerintah daerah yang mengatur keberadaan ojek. Rekomendasi aspek biaya yang mewajibkan pengguna mengetahui dengan jelas dan pasti biaya penggunaan ojek termasuk kemungkinan penerapan sistem argo meter. Rekomedasi aspek keselamatan yang mewajibkan syarat SIM C Umum untuk operator ojek dan penggunaan helm SNI bagi operator dan penumpang penyediaan fasilitas Pertolongan Pertama Pada Kecelakaan P3K dan asuransi jiwa untuk penumpang. Aspek keamanan yang merekomendasikan kewajiban operator mengenakan ciri-ciri keanggotaan organisasi ojek dan penyediaan fasilitas sistem pengaduan pelayanan pengguna jasa ojek. Rekomendasi aspek kenyamanan terutama adalah penyediaan helm SNI dan jas hujan yang bersih fasilitas pusat informasi pelayanan ojek serta aturan operator dalam mendapatkan penumpang. Rekomendasi aspek gender adalah ketersediaan operator perempuan untuk penumpang perempuan dan desain khusus pegangan untuk moda ojek.


ABSTRACT

Mortorcycle-taxi in Indonesia known more popularly as Ojek pronounced oh-jack is one of the modes of paratransit that has not been formally legalized. The Ojek services in Indonesia have many advantages when compared to other modes of public transports yet the Ojek services still have some shortcomings especially on the aspects of safety and comfort for their users. Therefore it is important that Ojek be formally regulated especially if the Ojek sercives may become a reality as a permanent mode of paratransit in Indonesia for a considerable time into the future. Related with this condition the purpose of this research is mainly to identify the demand and service characteristics of Ojek in Indonesia so that they can be evaluated analyzed and described to answer one of the research objectives which is whether the existence of Ojeks in Indonesia is a long-term phenomena or it is merely a temporary and short-term one. This research is also conducted to find the appropriate recommendations for Ojeks during operational services to become more reliable mode of paratransit in Indonesia to fulfill the need of improved safety and comfort of their users. The method of analyses used in this research is quantitative descriptive and it is used to investigate the variables of social-economy demand characteristics and service characteristics of respondents whom were the operators and the users of Ojeks. The Analyses are deducted from primary data collected through questionaires survey and interviews to respondents in the City of Surakarta representing the users in urban area and in the District of Wonogiri representing the users in rural area in Indonesia. The results of this research on demand characteristics of Ojek comprise of mainly the dominant profile of Ojek users and dominant Ojek transport demand. The results on service characteristics of Ojek comprise of mainly the dominant profile of Ojek operators and other Ojek dominant service characteristics. The similarities on dominant profiles among Ojek users in the urban and rural area are 1 majority of users are still in their productive ages 2 men use more Ojek as feeder transport while 3 women use Ojek more as origin-to-destination transport. Their differences are 1 Ojek services in the city are utilized more by younger generation 16 to 25-year old group range while in the rural area the more adult ages 36 year old are the predominant users also the differences between those in the urban and rural area are in 2 their levels of education 3 conditions of vehicle ownership 4 their positions among family and 4 their levels of income. The similarity on characteristics of dominant transport demand among Ojeks in urban and rural area is that majority of the users are utilizing Ojeks for their journey from work to home especially among those of feeder transport users. However significant differences are observed among those of urban and rural users and they are 1 the purposes of travelling among the non-feeder users 2 time of transport demand in a day 3 frequency of usage 4 distance of travelling 5 cost of single journey compared with the other available public transports and 6 reasons of usage. In term of Ojek operators the dominant characteristics for those in urban and rural which are similar are 1 operators age 2 their level of education 3 duration of employment as Ojek operators 4 average income as Ojek operators which is higher than the local minimum wage 5 status of Ojek owner and 6 having side jobs while working as Ojek operators. The differences are that no younger operator 16 to 25 year of age prevails in urban area while the side jobs while operating Ojeks are more plentiful in rural areas. Other similarity in term of Ojek vehicle usage in urban and rural areas is that majority of motorcycles used are of the model for women bebek and the vehicles are generally 5 years old. The differences are found that lager motor vehicle volumes are utilized in rural area more than those in urban area. The dominant service characteristics of Ojeks in urban and rural areas that are similar are 1 Ojek service is available at any time 2 Ojek will appear at any location where public transportations is limited or diffuclt 3 Ojek is used also for short travel distance 1.0 km 4 Ojek service can be easily obtained at certain Ojek terminals while many customers had been requesting Ojek by phone and this means people have been trusting Ojek for their transportation mean 5 Ojek operators who gather at mode-transfer locations are generally more traffic obedience than those gather away from the mode-transfer locations. The difference in Ojek services characteristics between urban and rural areas is on accident potential which is very much related to the field service conditions. This research concludes that the existence of Ojek in Indonesia is a long-term phenomena and this is due to the prevalence of factors determining Ojek existence which are 1 the factor of planning for regular public transport routes in Indonesia which is still insufficient regarding the maximum walking distance in many areas people still have to walk too far to reach the nearest public transportation service 2 the factor of government ability which is often very limited to provide good transportation facilities and infrastructures throughout the region 3 the factor of Ojek operation which is financially feasible and it does not need government subsidy 4 the factor of people economic condition which has resulted their need of cheaper transportation rather than comfortable ones 5 the factor of limited employment available especially for the low-educated people and the elderly. The existence of Ojek has proven to become the solution for the above factors and Ojek has the potentials to overcome transportation deficiencies as feeder transport for distances 5 km in urban areas with flat terrain and for distance 10 km in rural areas with hilly terrain. The results of this research also recommend several operational service procedures in the form of local ordinances to regulate Ojek. In the aspect of tariff it is recommended that users know clearly beforehand the cost they will have to pay for Ojek service including the possibility of applying argo-meter. In the aspect of safety it is recommended that the operator carry driver license type C General and the passengers use helmet of SNI-standard while also first aid facilities and life insurance be made available for every passenger. Other safety recommendations are the Ojek operators use uniform to represent their organization and a system of complaint service be made available for the users. For the comfort aspects it is recommended that safety helmets of SNI-standard and clean rain coats be provided also a center of Ojek information services and certain rules-of-conduct for operators while attracting customers be established. Recommendations for gender aspect are the availability of women drivers and special design in vehicle structures for woman passengers.



Keywordsojek, paratransit, transportasi perkotaan, transportasi pedesaan, Kota Surakarta, Kabupaten Wonogiri
 
Subject:  Pengangkutan kota -- Sepeda Motor (Ojek)
Contributor
  1. Prof. Ir. Indrasurya B. Mochtar, M.Sc. Ph.D.
  2. Dr. Ir. Ria A. A. Soemitro, M.Eng.
Date Create: 20/06/2013
Type: Text
Format: PDF
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-paper-31021140005305
Collection ID: 31021140005305
Call Number: RDS 388.34 Han p


Source
Paper And Presentation of Civil Engineering RDS 388.34 Han p,2014

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Copyright @2013 by ITS Library. This publication is protected by copyright and per obtained from the ITS Library prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a re transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, reco For information regarding permission(s), write to ITS Library




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