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ITS » Master Theses » Teknologi Proses - S2
Posted by dewi007 at 11/05/2009 16:27:03  •  5741 Views


PROSES HYDROCRACKING MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN KATALIS NIZEOLIT

HYDROCRACKING PALM OIL PROCESS WITH CATALYST NiZEOLIT

Author :
Irawan, Dedy  




ABSTRAK

Kebutuhan akan sumber energi yang terus meningkat dan cadangan minyak bumi sebagai sumber utama energi yang terus menipis menjadi alasan utama betapa pentingnya mencari sumber energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi. Minyak nabati khususnya minyak sawit yang melimpah terdapat di Indonesia dapat diproses menjadi bahan bakar nabati pengganti minyak bumi. Salah satu yang tengah dikembangkan adalah proses pembuatan gasoline dan kerosene dari proses perengkahan minyak sawit. Proses hydrocracking yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh kadar nikel dalam katalis suhu reaktor dan laju gas H2 pada proses perengkahan katalisis minyak sawit menjadi hidrokarbon rantai pendek C5 C12. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis dan proses hydrocracking. Sintesa katalis menghasilkan katalis zeolit sintetis tipe HZSM-5 dengan impregnasi nikel. Selanjutnya dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan AAS dan BET mendapatkan hasil SiAl 198 luas permukaan untuk HZSM-5 Ni-0 1499187 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-25 sebesar 1499007 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-50 sebesar 1452944 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-75 sebesar 1445420 m2gr dan ukuran pori rata rata 13 oA. Logam Ni yang masuk kedalam katalis sebesar 246 498 dan 731. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memanaskan minyak sawit sampai suhu 350C dalam tangki umpan dan kedalam tangki dialiri gas H2 dalam N2 dengan komposisi 13 laju gas H2 antara 0105 0205 ltrmenit. Uap minyak dan gas akan mengalir kedalam reaktor unggun tetap yang berisi katalis 500 mg. Reaksi perengkahan dilakukan pada suhu reaktor 400 500 C selama waktu 120 menit. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan gas kromatografi. Hasil yang diperoleh dari proses hydrocracking minyak kelapa sawit adalah yield dari fraksi gasoline 3641 dan fraksi kerosene 3477 pada suhu reaktor 500oC laju gas H2 0155 ltrmenit dan kandungan Ni dalam katalis 75. Proses hydrocracking minyak kelapa sawit menggunakan katalis zeolit tipe HZSM-5 impregnasi logam nikel mengarah pada pembentukan hidrokarbon C5 C12.


ABSTRACT

Requirement of the source of energy which increasing and petroleum reserve as especial source of energy which continue to attenuate to become especial reason what a important are look for the source of petroleum substitution alternative energy. Vegetable oil specially palms oil which abundance in Indonesia can be processed to become petroleum substitution vegetable fuel. One other developed is the process of kerosene and gasoline from hydrocracking palm oil process. Hydrocracking process performed within this research aim to study nickel rate influence in catalyst reactor temperature and rate of H2 gas at cracking process palm oil catalyst become short chain hydrocarbon C5 - C12. Research conducted in two steps that is catalyst synthesis and hydrocracking process. Product of Catalyst synthesis is HZSM-5 type synthetic zeolite catalyst with nickel impregnation. Hereinafter characterized by using AAS and BET get result SiAl 198 surface area for the HZSM-5 of Ni-0 149.9187 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-2.5 equal to 149.9007 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-5.0 equal to 145.2944 m2gr HZSM-5 Ni-7.5 equal to 144.5420 m2gr and pore size average 13 oA. Metal Ni which entering into catalyst equal to 2.46 4.98 and 7.31. Research conducted by heating palm oil until temperature 350C in feed tank and into tank emit a stream of H2 gas in N2 with composition 13 Rate of H2 gas 0.105 0.205 ltr min. Oil vapor and gas will emit a stream of into fixed bed reactor to be containing catalyst 500 mg. Hydrocracking reaction conducted at reactor temperature 400 - 500 C during time 120 minute. Result of hydrocracking analyzed with gas chromatography. Obtained result from palm oil hydrocracking process is yield from gasoline fraction 36.41 and kerosene fraction 34.77 at reactor temperature 500oC rate of H2 gas 0.155 ltrmin and Ni content in catalyst 7.5. Hydrocracking palm oil process used HZSM-5 nickel metal impregnation type zeolite catalyst forming of hydrocarbon C5 - C12.



KeywordsGasoline; hydrocracking; HZSM-5; minyak sawit; kerosene; yield
 
Subject:  minyak kelapa ; minyak sawit
Contributor
  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Roesyadi, DEA
Date Create: 11/05/2009
Type: Text
Format: pdf.
Language: Indonesian
Identifier: ITS-Master-3100009034330
Collection ID: 3100009034330
Call Number: RTK 665.355 Ira p


Source
Master Theses of Chemical Engineering, RTK 665.355 Ira p, 2008

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