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ITS » Master Theses » Teknologi Proses - S2
Posted by dewi007 at 11/05/2009 16:27:03  •  5439 Views



Created by :
Irawan, Dedy  

Subjectminyak kelapa
minyak sawit
minyak sawit


Kebutuhan akan sumber energi yang terus meningkat dan cadangan minyak bumi sebagai sumber utama energi yang terus menipis menjadi alasan utama betapa pentingnya mencari sumber energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi. Minyak nabati khususnya minyak sawit yang melimpah terdapat di Indonesia dapat diproses menjadi bahan bakar nabati pengganti minyak bumi. Salah satu yang tengah dikembangkan adalah proses pembuatan gasoline dan kerosene dari proses perengkahan minyak sawit. Proses hydrocracking yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh kadar nikel dalam katalis, suhu reaktor dan laju gas H2 pada proses perengkahan katalisis minyak sawit menjadi hidrokarbon rantai pendek, C5 – C12. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis dan proses hydrocracking. Sintesa katalis menghasilkan katalis zeolit sintetis tipe HZSM-5 dengan impregnasi nikel. Selanjutnya dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan AAS dan BET mendapatkan hasil Si/Al 198, luas permukaan untuk HZSM-5 Ni-0% 149,9187 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-2,5% sebesar 149,9007 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-5,0% sebesar 145,2944 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-7,5% sebesar 144,5420 m2/gr, dan ukuran pori rata – rata 13 oA. Logam Ni yang masuk kedalam katalis sebesar 2,46%, 4,98%, dan 7,31%. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memanaskan minyak sawit sampai suhu 350°C dalam tangki umpan dan kedalam tangki dialiri gas H2 dalam N2 dengan komposisi 1:3, laju gas H2 antara 0,105 – 0,205 ltr/menit. Uap minyak dan gas akan mengalir kedalam reaktor unggun tetap yang berisi katalis 500 mg. Reaksi perengkahan dilakukan pada suhu reaktor 400 – 500 °C selama waktu 120 menit. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan gas kromatografi. Hasil yang diperoleh dari proses hydrocracking minyak kelapa sawit adalah yield dari fraksi gasoline 36,41% dan fraksi kerosene 34,77 % pada suhu reaktor 500oC, laju gas H2 0,155 ltr/menit, dan kandungan Ni dalam katalis 7,5%. Proses hydrocracking minyak kelapa sawit menggunakan katalis zeolit tipe HZSM-5 impregnasi logam nikel mengarah pada pembentukan hidrokarbon C5 – C12.

Alt. Description

Requirement of the source of energy which increasing and petroleum reserve as especial source of energy which continue to attenuate to become especial reason what a important are look for the source of petroleum substitution alternative energy. Vegetable oil specially palms oil which abundance in Indonesia can be processed to become petroleum substitution vegetable fuel. One other developed is the process of kerosene and gasoline from hydrocracking palm oil process. Hydrocracking process performed within this research aim to study nickel rate influence in catalyst, reactor temperature and rate of H2 gas at cracking process palm oil catalyst become short chain hydrocarbon C5 - C12. Research conducted in two steps that is catalyst synthesis and hydrocracking process. Product of Catalyst synthesis is HZSM-5 type synthetic zeolite catalyst with nickel impregnation. Hereinafter characterized by using AAS and BET get result Si/Al 198, surface area for the HZSM-5 of Ni-0% 149.9187 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-2.5% equal to 149.9007 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-5.0% equal to 145.2944 m2/gr, HZSM-5 Ni-7.5% equal to 144.5420 m2/gr and pore size average 13 oA. Metal Ni which entering into catalyst equal to 2.46%, 4.98%, and 7.31%. Research conducted by heating palm oil until temperature 350°C in feed tank and into tank emit a stream of H2 gas in N2 with composition 1:3, Rate of H2 gas 0.105 – 0.205 ltr /min. Oil vapor and gas will emit a stream of into fixed bed reactor to be containing catalyst 500 mg. Hydrocracking reaction conducted at reactor temperature 400 - 500 °C during time 120 minute. Result of hydrocracking analyzed with gas chromatography. Obtained result from palm oil hydrocracking process is yield from gasoline fraction 36.41% and kerosene fraction 34.77 % at reactor temperature 500oC, rate of H2 gas 0.155 ltr/min, and Ni content in catalyst 7.5%. Hydrocracking palm oil process used HZSM-5 nickel metal impregnation type zeolite catalyst forming of hydrocarbon C5 - C12.

  1. Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Roesyadi, DEA
Date Create:11/05/2009
Collection ID:3100009034330
Call Number:RTK 665.355 Ira p

Source :
Master Theses of Chemical Engineering, RTK 665.355 Ira p, 2008

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